“20000 Leagues Under the Sea” Part1 Ch15

Question 1: How much lighter are objects underwater?

Question 2: What are the different types of sea floor?  Of what is sand composed of?  Are some sands composed more of shell dust than others?  What are some of the different colors of natural sand found throughout the world? What makes the “ooze” mude composed of equal parts of silicious and calcareous shells slimy?

Question 3: What is the fiery pelagiae?  Is it phosphorescent?

Question 4: What are hammer-head molluscs?

Answer 4: This might be referring to the hammer oysters with a hammer-headed appearance.  They are bivalves with a long, narrow, dirty white shell having shell wings on one end that give it a T-Square shape. The long valves have wavy edges.  The species is “Malleus albus Lamarck” of the family Malleidae. (from “Shells” by S. Peter Dance, copyright 2002, published by Dorling Kindersley, Inc., New York, New York)

Question 5: What are red-helmet shells?

Answer 5: According to the website:


red-helmet is one of several common names for the species “Cypraecassis rufa Linnaeus” of the family Cassidae.  It is also known under the common name “Bull’s-mouth Helmet”.

Question 6: What are donaciae molluscs?

Question 7: Professor Aronnax stated:

I noticed that the green plants kept nearer the top of the sea, whilst the red were at a greater depth, leaving to the black or brown hydrophytes the care of forming gardens and parterres in the remote beds of the ocean.

Why are red seaweeds more adapted to lower ocean depths?  Does it have to do with the light conditions?


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